Kańczuga, Poland in the Yad Vashem Shoah Names Database

Yad Vashem Shoah Names Database

Updates to the Compendium were delayed for several months while I was upgrading the server. Today, in addition to a number of smaller updates, there are now links from all 1350+ Polish towns in the Compendium to the Yad Vashem Shoah Names Database.

Kańczuga, Poland in the Yad Vashem Shoah Names Database
Kańczuga, Poland in the Yad Vashem Shoah Names Database

The links for each town generate a search of the database for people with a connection to the town. Whenever researching Jewish families, particularly those from Poland, searching the Yad Vashem database is critical not only for finding information on one’s family members who died in the Holocaust, but also for seeing who submitted Pages of Testimony for one’s relatives, and seeing who else they submitted Pages for, as that frequently allows one to make connections to other family members.

Finding all the Pages submitted by the same person recently became much easier, as Yad Vashem added a link on the details page for each Page of Testimony that automatically generates a list of the Pages submitted by the same person. In the past you have to do an Advanced Search using the name of the submitter, but now it’s as simple as clicking a link.

Keep in mind, however, that sometimes people in the database, including the submitters, have more than one name for various reasons. See my article Tracking down a couple that disappeared during the Holocaust for an example of an incorrect submitter name due to a typo or transcription error, as well as two whole sets of Pages of Testimony submitted by the same person a few months apart under different names (one time using his legal surname which was his mother’s maiden name, and one time using his father’s surname).

I hope everyone finds these links useful. Let me know if you find information on your family that you didn’t know.

101 Most Popular Jewish Boys Names in Israel in 2016

I’m happy to release my list of the 101 most popular Jewish boys names in Israel for 2016, based on recently released data for that year. This follows up my earlier releases of lists for 2014 and 2015. You can also see the lists for the 101 Most Popular Jewish Girls Names in Israel in 2016.

Five boys names broke into the list in 2016 – Ari (all the way from 106 to 56), Malachi (107 to 77), Roy/Roi (108 to 88), Gabriel (111 to 92) and Osher (104 to 99). The five that left the list were Yotam (99 to 103), Tomer (91 to 105), Dan (101 to 106), Yarin (90 to 108), and Ofek (80 to 109).

All the columns in the table below can be used to sort the table, so you can sort the table to see the order of ranking for each year, or by the spelling of the name in Hebrew or English. You can also search the table using the search field on the top right of the table.

2016
Rank
2015
Rank
2014
Rank
Name
(Hebrew)
Name
(English)
Number
111נוֹעַםNoam1505
223דָּוִדDavid1479
332אוריUri/Ori1385
447אֲרִיאֵלAriel1251
564יוֹסֵףJoseph1237
655אֵיתָןEitan (Ethan)1175
798דָּנִיֵּאלDaniel1165
876אִיתַּיItai1067
989יְהוֹנָתָןYehonatan1053
101010מֹשֶׁהMoshe975
111414יְהוּדָהYehuda (Judah)956
121311אַבְרָהָםAbraham928
132636לָבִיאLavi876
141918יִשְׂרָאֵלYisrael (Israel)831
151115אִיתָמָרItamar824
161817עוֹמֶרOmer780
171512יוֹנָתָןYonatan (Jonathan)769
181616יָאִירYair743
192120יַעֲקֹבYaakov (Jacob)743
202524אַלְיָהEliya741
213237רְפָאֵלRaphael735
221730שְׁמוּאֵלShmuel (Samuel)733
231213עִידּוֹIdo724
242225מִיכָאֵלMichael706
252321יִצְחָקYitzchak (Isaac)674
262428חַיִּיםChaim647
272023הַרְאֵלHarel642
283135שִׁמְעוֹןShimon (Simon)594
292922עָמִיתAmit583
302719אַלּוֹןElon579
313332שְׁלֹמֹהShlomo (Solomon)533
325456עוֹמֶרִיOmri514
333026עִילָּאִיIlay512
342827גַּיְאGuy505
353531בֵּןBen487
363429נהוראיNehorai482
373734נְתַנְאֵלNetanel477
384438מֵאִירMeir466
394233אָדָםAdam461
404948מָרְדְּכַיMordechai457
414345נִיתַּאיNitai455
424044אוֹרOr452
434751יִשַׁיYishai440
445357יַנַּאיYanai439
453640אַהֲרוֹןAharon (Aaron)438
464539לִיאַםLiam429
474146בִּנְיָמִיןBenjamin428
483954אֵלִיָּהוּEliyahu422
493841נָדָבNadav403
505049מְנַחֵםMenachem394
514859הללHillel/Hallel377
525152רוֹעִיRoi374
535758נָתָןNatan (Nathan)373
545242יוּבַלYuval367
5565128אֵלרוֹאִיElroi362
56106111אֲרִיAri353
574643יוֹאָבYoav347
586161מַתָּןMatan312
5967120בְּנָיָהBnaya310
605950לִיאוֹרLior310
61100124אִימְרִיImri307
625553מָאוֹרMaor303
635868אֲבִיאֵלAviel293
645662אֶבְיָתָרEviatar289
657780בְּאֵרִיBeeri289
667874נְבוֹNevo269
676366שַׁחַרShachar267
686255אָבִיבAviv263
699291רוֹםRom262
706047עִידָּןIdan259
717373נוהNeveh257
726464אוֹפִירOphir248
737063אָסָףAsaf247
748789נַחְמָןNachman246
756960דּוֹרDor244
767495לִירוֹיLeroi234
77107121מַלְאָכִיMalachi229
786869אוּרִיאֵלUriel226
798272אֶלְחָנָןElchanan222
806665איילEyal221
818990אֲמִיתַּיAmitai218
827576יַהַבYahav218
839371רוֹןRon218
849583צְבִיZvi215
858492שָׁלוֹםShalom210
867167יָהֵלִיYaheli209
878693נֵרִיָּהNeriah207
88108147רוֹיRoy/Roi206
899478אוריהUriah201
907284אֱלִיאָבEliav201
918587שִׁילֹהShilo201
92111108גַּבְרִיאֵלGabriel197
938182יִנּוֹןYinon197
94103125אַדִּירAdir195
9596112אֵלִיעֶזֶרEliezer195
967981דְּבִירDvir192
9788104עוֹזOz192
989788שַׁיShai191
9910497אוֹשֶׁרOsher189
10011686תּוֹםTom189
10183105מַעֲיָיןMaayan185

101 Most Popular Jewish Girls Names in Israel in 2016

I’m happy to release my list of the 101 most popular Jewish girls names in Israel for 2016, based on recently released data for that year. This follows up my earlier releases of lists for 2014 and 2015. You can also see the lists for the 101 Most Popular Boys Names in Israel in 2016.

Three girls names broke into the top 101 in 2016 – Arbel (which jumped all the way from 104 to 73), Shoshana (105 to 93), and Chava (107 to 101). The three names that left the list were Lior (90 to 104), Shilat (101 to 105) and Yaara (92 to 106).

All the columns in the table below can be used to sort the table, so you can sort the table to see the order of ranking for each year, or by the spelling of the name in Hebrew or English. You can also search the table using the search field on the top right of the table.

2016
Rank
2015
Rank
2014
Rank
Name
(Hebrew)
Name
(English)
Number
122תָּמָרTamar1322
211נוֹעָהNoa1293
348אֲבִיגַיִלAbigail1182
434מַאיָהMaya1178
595יָעֵלYael1106
666אַדֶלAdele1101
773שִׁירָהShira1047
81010שָׂרָהSarah1034
989איילהAyala1003
1057טַלְיָהTalia989
111611אֶסְתֵּרEsther870
121416לִיָהLia791
131314חַנָּהChana (Hanna)771
141918רִבְקָהRivka (Rebecca)746
151119רוֹנִיRoni740
161217רוֹמִיRomi730
171821הוֹדָיָהHodaya700
182015אֵלָהElah690
191513מִיכַלMichal689
202427חַיָּהChaya682
212220רָחֵלRachel677
221712נוֹיָהNoya655
232326מִרְיָםMiriam645
243335אֵמָהEmma642
252933רוּתRuth593
262124יוּבַלYuval586
272622עַלְמָהAlma579
283937הַלֵּלHallel573
292829אֲרִיאֵלAriel568
303025תָּהֶלTahal554
312523אֲגַםAgam549
322732נָעֳמִיNaomi504
333631לִיאַןLian/Leanne476
343739גַּאיָהGaia452
353540אֶפְרָתEfrat451
363428עֲדִיAdi451
373134נֹגַהּNoga449
383230הִילָּהHila435
395245נֶטַעNeta432
404141לֵאָהLeah414
414252אֶמִילִיEmily412
427795עוֹמֶרOmer408
436247הֲדַסָּהHadassa405
444042תְּהִילָּהTehila405
453836מַעֲיָיןMaayan393
465053טוֹהָרTohar387
475143נוֹעַםNoam380
484355יָהֵלִיYaheli379
496462לִיבִּיLibi378
504450אוריהUria/Oria374
515561מַלְכָּהMalka373
525646מִיקָהMika369
535857הֲדַסHadas360
544551עוֹפְרִיOfri354
554638הָדָרHadar350
564748נַעֲמָהNaama346
575756יְהוּדִיתYehudit (Judith)337
585368אֱלִישֶׁבַעElisheva (Elizabeth)336
594959שָׁקֵדShaked336
604860שִׁירShir331
616054אוֹרִיOri324
625467אֲבִישַׁגAvishag316
635949עָמִיתAmit307
648592שַׁי-לִיShaily299
656671אַלְיָהAliya282
666974דְּבוֹרָהDvora (Deborah)282
676864דָּנִיֵּאלDaniel281
687072גֶּפֶןGefen279
696358אוֹפִירOphir278
706144אוֹרOr277
716563לִיאֵלLiel272
728085שַׁיShai263
73104114אַרְבֵּלArbel262
747275שַׁחַרShachar259
757976אָנָּאֵלAnael243
767466עֵדֶןEden240
776765מוֹרִיָּהMoriah237
787886אֲבִיָּהAvia236
798190אַלְמָהAlma235
808269אָלִיןAleen218
817683מַאיMay217
828473גִּילִיGili210
837379נֶחָמָהNechama209
849877רוֹתֶםRotem203
859782בִּרָכָהBracha202
868884זוֹהַרZohar201
879688אֲבִיטַלAvital196
887178יַרְדֵּןYarden (Jordan)196
8995101כַּרְמֶלCarmel192
907570שָׁנִיShani192
918781אוֹדֶלOdele190
9289106גַּלִּיGali185
93105112שׁוֹשַׁנָּהShoshana181
949494אָבִיבAviv176
958691דָּנִיֵּאלָהDaniella174
969393הִילִיHili174
978389בַּת שֶׁבַעBatsheva171
9810098צִפּוֹרָהTziporah169
9999132יוּלִיYuli (July)166
1009187אוֹרִיןOrin165
10110797חַוָּהChava165
Hebrew-English Family Terms Chart

Hebrew family and genealogy terms

Happy Yom Haazmaut (Israeli Independence Day) from Jerusalem. In honor of the holiday I’m publishing a list (and accompanying chart) of Hebrew and English family and genealogy terms. For the impatient, the list of terms is at the bottom of this post. Keep in mind one thing when looking at the list – it’s a first draft and I expect it to change based on input from others and the comments made below. The list is not a dictate, it’s a discussion.

Hebrew-English Family Terms Chart 0.2

The following is the background on why I’ve put this together, what the issues were, and where I found the information.

Recently I’ve been thinking about creating Hebrew versions of my B&F Forms System. As I’ve mentioned before, my collection of genealogy forms are designed to work together, connecting in ways that are fairly unique. I don’t know how many people have used my forms, as there’s no way to track their usage when they’re shared. I do know, however, that my forms have been downloaded over 40,000 times from this web site, and have been used by schools and other organizations, so I can only assume the number of people who have used them is higher.

B&F Ancestor Form
B&F Ancestor Form
I’ve long wanted to translate the forms into Hebrew, but for many reasons, many of them technical such as no longer having the software I used to create the original forms, I’ve never been able to do it. Recently I’ve been looking into the idea of finally translating the forms, so I’ve been doing research to insure all the terms I use are correct. In my research I found no extensive glossary of family and genealogy terms in Hebrew, although there were many partial lists. That led me to start putting together my own, which I am presenting below. I’d like people to think of this as a beta version, however, as I’m not 100% certain on all the terms, as I’ll explain in detail. I also know that there are more terms to add in the future. This is the beginning of what I imagine will be a long discussion.

When I speak to people who learned English as a second language, invariably they describe it as a difficult language to learn. Primarily the problem people have with English is that there are so many exceptions to the rules, that it almost seems like there are no rules. Hebrew has a different problem, although it certainly has its own problem with exceptions. Hebrew, of course, has been in use for thousands of years. As a spoken language, however, it has a large gap in its history. Even two thousand years ago, many Jews spoke Aramaic or Greek in daily life, and reserved Hebrew for religious rites and scholarship. That’s not so different from the nearly thousand years that Yiddish was the primary spoken language of Ashkenazi Jews in Europe, or Ladino was used by Sephardic Jews after the expulsion from Spain in 1492. However you look at it, until the foundation of the state of Israel, it had been well over two thousand years since Hebrew had been widely spoken by people as their native language.

Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
One of the most amazing achievements of the Zionist movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which some would describe as miraculous, was the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language. This is the only time in history that a language with no native speakers at the time was turned into a national language with millions of speakers. That process was started by individuals, most famously Eliezer Ben Yehuda, and continued by committee, and eventually by the Academy of the Hebrew Language, which was established in 1953 and tasked by the Israeli government to direct the development of the language.

With all of that, modern Hebrew remains a language in flux. Modern Hebrew starts with biblical Hebrew, but shows influences going back to Aramaic and Greek, on to Yiddish and Ladino, and more recent influences such as English and Arabic. While there is an Academy, that doesn’t mean people speak strictly by its rules. Certainly that is not the case. One good example is the use of the words Saba (סַבָּא) and Savta (סָבְתָא) for grandfather and grandmother. These words are universally used, but strictly speaking, not the proper Hebrew terms (they are in fact Aramaic, not Hebrew). The correct terms are actually Sav (סָב) and Sava (סָבָה), but I’ve never heard anyone use those terms. Additionally the correct term for grandmother (Sava) sounds a lot like the actually used term for grandfather (Saba). Remember that in Hebrew B and V are the same letter (the letter bet ב, B with a dot in the middle and V without). Another example is that the offical term for great-grandfather is Av Shileish (אָב שִׁלֵּשׁ), while the universally used term is Saba Raba (סַבָּא רַבָּא). Moreover, while the correct female version of this would be Savta Rabta (סָבְתָא רַבְּתָא), it seems many people say Savta Raba (סָבְתָא רַבָּא).

Another problem with figuring out the correct terms to use is the fact that Hebrew is a gendered language. There are no generic terms such as ‘cousin’ or ‘grandparent’. At best, one would use the male version of the word when lacking gender specificity, but that can lead to some confusion. In another example of official words versus actual usage, the official word for cousin is Dodan (דּוֹדָן) in the masculine, and Dodanit (דּוֹדָנִית) in the feminine. Many people, however, people use the terms Ben Dode (בֶּן דּוֹד) and Bat Dode (בַּת דּוֹד) instead. Literally those terms mean Son of Uncle and Daughter of Uncle. You could also say בֶּן דוֹדָה (Son of Aunt) or בַּת דוֹדָה (Daughter of Aunt), and some people do this, but some people also fall back on just using דּוֹד generically. In any of those four cases, however, the term literally refers to one’s first cousin (the child of your aunt or uncle). As such there essentially is no term for first cousin in Hebrew. You could say בֶּן דּוֹד רִאשׁוֹן if you wanted to be specific, but it’s not very common. In my experience Israelis describe the relationships they are trying to convey, and don’t necessarily use the ‘correct’ terms.

One example which took me some time to figure out was what to call a great-uncle or great-aunt. When I asked my neighbor, she said she would describe them as the brother or sister of her grandparent. When I told her I had come across the terms Dod Raba (דּוֹד רַבָּא) and Doda Rabta (דּוֹדָה רַבְּתָא) she had clearly never heard of them. If someone were to use these terms in speaking, I suspect that the female would end up being Doda Raba, similar to how Savta Ravta is normally used as Savta Raba. Interestingly the Academy shows these terms (not דּוֹדָה רַבָּא which is said, but not grammatically correct), but also Dod Gadol (דּוֹד גָּדוֹל) and Doda Gadola (דּוֹדָה גְּדוֹלָה), which may come from the English terms great-uncle and great-aunt (although Raba also means great).

Another interesting example is that Hebrew, unlike English, has specific words for great-grandson and great-granddaughter. While the terms for grandson and granddaughter are Neched (נֶכֶד) and Nechda (נֶכְדָּה) respectively, the terms for great-grandson and great-granddaughter are Nin (נִין) and Nina (נִינָה). How would you say great-great-grandson? Officially the term is Khimaish (חִמֵּשׁ), which comes from the Hebrew word for five, but in practice I think the real usage is Ben Nin (בֶּן נִין), which means ‘son of great-grandson’. Also, like the word for cousin, which means ‘son of uncle’, if you wanted to say great-great-granddaughter, you would say Bat Nin (בַּת נִין) which means ‘daughter of great-grandson’ even if the girl in question was the daughter of one’s great-granddaughter (although you could say בַּת נִינָה if you wanted to).

Choosing the terms to use, therefore, is a bit complicated. One thinks of the lexicographical debates in the past over descriptive versus prescriptive definitions. I tend towards the descriptive approach, as if something isn’t being used in real life, it’s not that useful. When there are terms that are not widely used as all, I tried to stick to the official terms, unless they seemed out of the pattern of other similar terms. I welcome discussion of these terms in the comments below. I imagine some people will disagree with the choices I have made.

To research these terms I looked at various dictionaries (including Morfix and Milog), but also online forums where these terms were discussed, articles that discussed the terms, as well as talking with native Hebrew speakers to understand what terms they used in the real world. Some of the sources include the Academy of the Hebrew Language’s Term Database and articles there as well (עברית לכל המשפחה, איך ייקראו בן הנין ואחי הסב?, חם וחמות, חותן וחותנת, פרשת וירא – נִין), several articles across different sites (1, 2, 3, 4), and the Tapuz Forum (some example threads include: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). That last Tapuz link was amusingly a discussion of families in Harry Potter.

Wikigenia Cousin Chart
Wikigenia Cousin Chart
After piecing together most of my list, I found a cousin chart which confirms most of what I had determined for cousins, laying it out very nicely. One problem with the system used in the chart (going from בֶּן נִין to נֶכֶד נִין to נִין נִין to בֶּן נִין נִין) is that it becomes hard to calculate the further you go. I agree that’s the general consensus on what people would do, but I wish there was a simpler way to do it. It seems there is no set method of laying out these relationships. Another problem is the term for ‘removed’ which I’ll discuss below.

Reverso Context
Reverso Context
One site that was useful in finding real world usage of these terms is Reverso Context, which for the term great-great-grandson, includes the following real-world examples: נֶכֶד הריבע, נֶכֶד שֶׁל נֶכֶד, and נֶכֶד רַבָּא רַבָּא. In English, those would be grandson of grandson, grandson the fourth, and great-great-grandson. Interestingly, none of the examples include בֶּן נִין from the chart mentioned above. Keep in mind when looking at Reverso Context that not all the translations are accurate. They are for the most part taken from an interesting source – a public database of movie sub-titles. Those sub-title files are likely not professionally translated but done by film enthusisats looking to share translations of movies into their own language. Transcriptions are done by everyday people and not professionals, however, that can actually be beneficial when trying to analyze regular usage in a non-academic setting.

Another example from Reverso Context is for the term great-great-grandfather, which is kind of the reverse of the above. Here we have the expected סָבָּא רַבָּא רַבָּא, but also סָבָּא שֶׁל הַסָבָּא ,סָבָּא רַבָּא נֶהְדָר, and סָבָּא ריבעה.

One more example where this gives some insight is how to explain cousins of different generations. In English we say first cousin twice removed, or third cousin once removed, etc. In the chart mentioned earlier, they use the term ‘מוּזָח’ which means moved, so בֶּן דּוֹד שְׁלִישִׁי מוּזָח פָּעַם אַחַת is third cousin moved one time. In Reverso Context, a common usage is הוּסַר, which means to remove. This could simply be because there is no established terminology here, and these examples are people who are simply translating the English term. Other terms used include מֶדּוֹר which means from generation (i.e. בֶּן דּוֹד מֶדּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי for first cousin from the third generation) and מַדְרֵגָה which means level (ie. בֶּן הַדּוֹד הַרִאשׁוֹן מַדְרֵגָה שְׁנִיָּיה for first cousin level two). This is confusing since some people say בֶּן דּוֹד מַדְרֵגָה שְׁנִיָּיה to mean second cousin. For that reason I would avoid using מַדְרֵגָה in this case. At this point it seems that whoever is using a word for this concept is making it up as they go. When discussing this issue with a friend, they suggested a better word might be מוזז, which can mean removed or shifted, and now I have about five candidates. There is no ‘correct’ term, at least in the sense of being approved by the Academy of the Hebrew Language. One way to get such terms approved is probably to get them put to use in the real world. For the time being I’m going with מוזז, and I welcome discussion in the comments below on what you think of this term, and what you use to describe cousins of different generations. If you have real-world examples, particularly published in books or news media, that would be helpful.

Lastly, the goal for this list, and the accompanying chart at the top of the page, is to help family researchers who speak English to figure out what terms to use in Hebrew, and also for Hebrew speakers to figure out what terms to use in English. I’m hoping this will help everyone communicate better, and with a bit more precision, when conversing with family or archives in English speaking countries and in Israel. For those terms that are not well known, perhaps this list will help them receive some use, and for those those concepts that did not have established terms, hopefully this list will help spur on the approval of such terms.

Below is the full list of terms. This is a first draft, so if you see an error, please post it in the comments below. I will correct the list and update it (and the chart at the top) over time. I’ve strived to find the middle ground between what is really used in Hebrew, and what is ‘correct’ according to the academy. Usually the academy recognizes other uses and lists them, even if they’re not preferred, so I’m only switching their order of preference.

For the transliterations, note that I use kh to represent the letter khet (ח), which represents a sound that is not used in English. While you can very roughly approximate the pronunciation of words that begin with kh by dropping the k (i.e. haam instead of khaam), that doesn’t work when the letter is at the end of the word (i.e. ah instead of akh).

In the table below columns are sortable, and you can search a term as well in the search box at the top. If you think there are terms that should be added (and I’m sure there are) please post your idea to the comments below.

HebrewTransliterationEnglish
גֶּנֶאָלוֹגְיָהgenelogyagenealogy
מִשְׁפָּחָהmishpakhafamily
בֵּן מִשְׁפָּחָהben mishpakhafamily member
אִילַן יֻחֲסִיןilan yukhasinfamily tree
אָב קַדְמוֹןav kadmonancestor
צֶאֱצָאtse'etsadescendant
אֵםaimmother
אָבavfather
אִמָּאeemamom
אַבָּאabbadad
הוֹרֶהhorehparent
אִשָׁהishawife
בַּעַלbaalhusband
בֶּן זוּגben zoogpartner (male)
בַּת זוּגbaht zoogpartner (female)
בַּתbahtdaughter
בֵּןbenson
אָחakhbrother
אָחוֹתakhotsister
אַחַאיakhaisibling
סַבָּאsabagrandfather
סָבְתָאsavtagrandmother
סַבָּא רַבָּאsaba rabagreat-grandmother
סָבְתָא רַבְּתָאsavta rabagreat-grandmother
סַבָּא רַבָּא רַבָּאsaba raba rabagreat-great-grandfather
סָבְתָא רַבְּתָא רַבְּתָאsavta rabta rabtagreat-great-grandmother
דּוֹד רַבָּאdode rabagreat-uncle
דוֹדָה רַבְּתָאdoda rabtagreat-aunt
נֶכֶדnekhedgrandson
נֶכְדָּהnekhdagranddaughter
נִיןningreat-grandson
נִינָהninagreat-granddaughter
בֶּן נִיןben ningreat-great-grandson
בַּת נִיןbat ningreat-great-granddaughter
דוֹדdodeuncle
דוֹדָהdodaaunt
אַחְיָןakhyannephew
אַחְיָנִיתakhyanitniece
בֶּן דוֹדben dodemale cousin, cousin
בַּת דוֹדָהbaat dodafemale cousin
בֶּן דּוֹד שֵׁנִיben dode shenisecond cousin
בַּת דּוֹדָה שְׁנִיָּהbat doda shniasecond cousin (female)
בֶּן דּוֹד שְׁלִישִׁיben dode shlishithird cousin
בַּת דּוֹדָה שְׁלִישִׁיתbat doda shlishitthird cousin (female)
בֶּן דּוֹד מוּזָז פָּעַם אַחַתben dode muzaz pa'am akhatfirst cousin once removed
בֶּן דּוֹד שְׁלִישִׁי מוּזָז פַּעֲמַיִםben dode shlishi muzaz pa'amayimthird cousin twice removed
בֶּן דּוֹד רְבִיעִי מוּזָז שָׁלוֹשׁ פְּעָמִיםben dode rivee'ee muzaz shalosh pa'amimfourth cousin three times removed
בֶּן דּוֹד רָחוֹקben dode rakhokedistant cousin
חָםkhaamfather-in-law (can refer to the father either spouse, but when using חוֹתֵן for the father of the wife, חָם is used as father of the husband)
חָמוֹתkhaamotmother-in-law (can refer to the mother either spouse, but when using חוֹתֶנֶת for the mother of the wife, חָמוֹת is used as mother of the husband)
חוֹתֵןkhotainfather-in-law (only used as the father of the wife)
חוֹתֶנֶתkhotenetmother-in-law (only used as the mother of the wife)
מְחֻתָּנִיםmakhutanimrelated by marriage
כַּלָהkalladaughter-in-law/bride
חָתָןkhatanson-in-law/groom
גִיסgeesbrother-in-law
גִיסָהgeesasister-in-law
גִּיסָןgeesanbrother of brother/sister-in-law
גִּיסָנִיתgeesanitsister of brother/sister-in-law
אָב חוֹרֵגav khoregstepfather
אֵם חוֹרֶגֶתaim khoregetstepmother
בֶּן חוֹרֵגben khoregstep-son, step-child
בַּת חוֹרֶגֶתbaat khoregetstep-daughter
אָח חוֹרֵגakh khoregstep-brother
אָחוֹת חוֹרֶגֶתakhot khoregetstep-sister
אָח לְמֶחֱצָהakh limekhetzahalf-brother
אָחוֹת לְמֶחֱצָהakhot limekhetzahalf-sister
שֵׁם פְּרַטִיshem pratigiven name
שֵׁם מִשׁפָּחָהshem mishpachasurname
שֵׁם קָדוֹשׁ/שֵׁם עִבְרִיshem kodesh/shem ivrireligious name (literally holy name/hebrew name)
כִּנּוּיkinnuisecular name/nickname
שֵׁם הַנְּעוּרִיםshem haniurimmaiden name
לֵידַהlaedabirth
תְּעוּדַת לֵידַהteudat laedabirth certificate
תַּאֲרִיךְ לֵידַהta'areech laedadate of birth
אֶרֶץ לֵידַה eretz laedacountry of birth
מָקוֹם לֵידַהmakom laedaplace of birth
תַּאֲרִיךְ לֵידַה עִבְרִיta'areech laeda ivriHebrew date of birth
תַּאֲרִיךְ לֵידַה לוֹעֲזִיta'areech laeda loaziforeign (Gregorian) date of birth
יוֹם הוּלֶדֶתyom huledetbirthday
בְּרִית מִילָהbrit milahcircumcision
יָתוֹםyatomorphan
אִמּוּץeemootsadoption
אֵרוּסִיןerusinengagement
קִדוּשִׁיןkedushinmarriage ceremony
כְּתֻבָּהketubahJewish marriage contract
תְּעוּדַת נִשּׂוּאִיםteudat nisuinmarriage certificate
חֲתוּנָהkhatunawedding
נִשׂוּאִיןnisuinmarriage
תַּאֲרִיךְ נִשׂוּאִיןta'areech nisuinwedding date
גֵּרוּשִׁיןgaerushindivorce
גֵּטgetJewish divorce certificate
תְּעוּדַת גֵּרוּשִׁיןteudat gaerushindivorce certificate
מָוֶתmavetdeath
תַּאֲרִיךְ פְּטִירָהta'areech petiradate of death
מָקוֹם פְּטִירָהmakom petiraplace of death
תְּעוּדַת פְּטִירָהteudat petirahdeath certificate
בֵּית עָלְמִין, בֵּית קְבָרוֹתbeit almin, beit kvarotcemetery
קְבוּרָהkivurahburial
רִשָּׁיוֹן קְבוּרָהrishayon kivurahburial license
חֶבְרָה קַדִּישָׁאkhevra kadishaburial society
קֶבֶרkevergrave
תַּכְרִיךְtakhreekhburial shroud
מַצֵּבָהmatzevahtombstone
מוֹדַעַת אֵבֶלmoda'at avelobituary
הֶסְפֵּדhespedeulogy
שֶׁלְאַחַר הַמָוֶתshel'akhar hamavetposthumous
יְרוּשָּׁהyerushainheritance, legacy
עִזָּבוֹןeezabonestate
אִשׁוּר צַוָאָהishur tsava'aprobate
הִתְאַזְרְחוּתhitazrikhutenaturalization
אֶזרָחוּתezrakhutecitizenship
הֲגִירָהhagirahimmigration/emigration
מְהַגֵרmihagareimmigrant/emigrant
עוֹלֶהolehimmigrant to Israel
יוֹרֵדyoredemigrant from Israel
רְשִׁימָהrishimaregister
עִתּוֹןeetonenewspaper
רָצוֹןratsonwill
מִפְקָדmeefkadcensus
רְשִׁימָת נוֹסְעִיםrishimat nosimpassenger list
מִצַד הַאָבmitsad ha'avpaternal/patrilineal
מִצַד הַאֵםmitsad ha'aimmaternal/matrilineal
יִחוּסyikhuspedigree
מָקוֹר רִאשׁוֹנִיmakor rishoniprimary source
מָקוֹר מִשְׁנִיmakor mishenisecondary source
כְּפָרkfarvillage
עִירeercity
עִיר לֵידַהeer laedabirth city
מָחוֹזmakhozcounty
מְדִינָהmedinahstate/country
אֶרֶץeretzland/country
מַעַןma'anaddress
מְגוּרִיםmigurimresidence
רְשׁוּמוֹת חִיּוּנִיrishumot khiunivital records
שֵׁמוֹן גֵּאוֹגְרָפִיshaemon geografigazeteer
מִיקרוֹפִילםmeekrofilmmicrofilm
מִיקרוֹפִישmeekrofeeshmicrofiche
תַּאֲרִיךְta'areechdate
יוֹםyomeday
חֹדֶשׁkhodeshmonth
שָׁנָהshanayear
יָנוּאָרyanuarJanuary
פֶבְּרוּאָרfebruarFebruary
מֶרְץmaertsMarch
אַפְּרִילaprilApril
מַאיmaiMay
יוּנִיyuniJune
יוּלִיyuliJuly
אוֹגוּסְטohgoostAugust
סֶפְּטֶמְבֶּרseptemberSeptember
אוֹקְטוֹבֶּרoctoberOctober
נוֹבֶמְבֶּרnovemberNovember
דֶּצֶמְבֶּרdetsemberDecember

B&F has a new server

The short version of what I’m about to write is that this web site is running on a new web server, which should mean the site will be running faster than ever before. If you see any problems on the site, please contact me so I can fix them. For those interested, I am including more details below.

I am grateful for all the users of this site, and hope everyone who has visited has benefited in some way when they’ve come to the site. This web site has been around since 2010, when it was originally launched as a Blogger site. Back in 2013 I moved the site to self-hosted WordPress, which allowed me to expand the site’s content and functionality, but also meant I had to maintain the site and had to deal with the fact that many other sites were running on the same server. My web host was actually great, and I continue to run other sites on the same host without any problems, but they had no good solution for moving this site to a bigger server when it needed it.

B&F Compendium of Jewish GenealogyWhen I created the B&F Compendium of Jewish Genealogy, I stretched the capacity of the server to its limits. The average WordPress site only has a few Pages (as opposed to Posts, of which there can be many), maybe a few dozen, but the Compendium uses over 25,000 Pages and is continuing to grow. Whether WordPress was the right platform to develop the Compendium on is a different question, but as I had it running in WordPress I had to find a way to increase the capacity of the server without breaking the bank (since this site is a labor of love, and I make no money from it).

For those who use WordPress, think about the fact that on the WordPress editor page, all Pages are loaded into a drop-down menu for selecting a parent page. Imagine now that you have 25,000 pages and that the menu is obviously part of the page that loads.

Amazon LighsailOver the past several months I’ve been working to move my site to a service operated by Amazon called Lightsail. Lightsail is essentially a simplified version of Amazon’s EC2 cloud computing service. You pay a set amount a month and get a VPS server that you control. For $5 a month you get a Linux server with 512MB of RAM and 20GB of storage, and the best part is that you can easily upgrade the server if you need more power. The $5/month is more than I paid before, but it’s still quite reasonable for the added power I get, and if I need to I can move to a more powerful server for simple increments in cost.

Migrating a web site to a new server is never easy, and not to be taken lightly. There are always unexpected problems, and my site had some fairly unique problems. One of the problems I ran into was that the database that holds all the information for the site was so large that it was difficult to even export to a format I could move to the new server. At first the exported database was over 300MB. I looked into the database and saw a lot of the records had to do with plug-ins I used. I had to disable those plug-ins, and remove their data from the database manually, which brought the size down to a still difficult 100MB. When I was finally able to export the database, I found it impossible to import to the new server. The web interface to the database, which was the easiest way to import the data, would run out of memory before completing the import. I tried uploading the file to the server directly and importing the data via the command line, but still had trouble.

Eventually I found a great little piece of code that helped me import the data by breaking it down into smaller chunks and importing it piece by piece (BigDump, which I recommend highly for those who need to import large databases). However, even with this new tool I ended up with an error message I didn’t understand. After asking for help online, I found out that the error was due to the original web site running on an older version of the database software (MySQL) and that the newer version didn’t allow a date field to be empty (set to 0 essentially). When you had a data field in the database that you didn’t have a value for, it was supposed to be set to Jan 1 1970 instead. Go figure, but I had 53 times in the database where I had a zeroed out date, and doing a find and replace in the database fixed the problem and the database finally imported.

Other problems were more mundane. As I tried different parts of the site, I noticed certain things didn’t work properly.

The contact form didn’t work, which it turns out was because the new server didn’t handle mail the same way as the old server. After re-configuring the mail, the contact form began to work.

The maps on the Compendium city pages were not being displayed because for some reason Google thought this was a different site. After setting up new credentials for the the Google Maps API, the maps began to work again as well.

The more insidious problems had to do with file and folder permissions. Having moved much of the files over from my old server, the file permissions on many things were wrong. Now I find file permissions in UNIX to be a form of the dark arts, but slowly I’ve been fixing the problems. I noticed, for example, that I couldn’t upload new images, which is because the server couldn’t create a new folder to upload images to for this month. Sure enough, it was a permissions problem. Upgrading plug-ins has also been difficult due to permission issues. This is probably an issue that will continue to cause issues for some time until I’ve worked out all the bugs.

For the last few days the site has been running completely on the new server. I imagine there will still be problems going forward, and I ask that if you run into anything you think is weird on the site, please please contact me and tell me what you saw. As with the above examples, the problems can be hard to predict, so if you see something odd, such as an error message, or even a missing image, don’t assume I already know about the problem. Please contact me and let me know, so I can fix it for everyone.