The Fate of the Sabbatarians

I don’t often link to other articles online, but I read an article today that struck me as fascinating, well-researched, well-written, and which has many implications for those interested in Jewish genealogy.

The article, by Shay Fogelman in Haaretz, is titled Discovering Europe’s non-Jews who kept the faith and it discusses the fascinating history of the Sabbatarian community of Transylvania (Szekler Sabbatarians). The Sabbatarians were a community founded in the late 1500s by a Christian nobleman who, fascinated by the Bible and other Jewish writings, adopted many customs of Jews such as keeping the Sabbath (thus the name Sabbatarians) and keeping kosher, etc. He spread his beliefs to his court, which slowly adopted his beliefs, but it was his adopted son and successor who really spread this new belief-system by translating Jewish prayerbooks into Hungarian for the use of his followers. They were not Jews, they were not Christians, and that created no shortage of problems for them.

Bozodujfalu, center of the Sabbatarian community

In many ways they were persecuted even more than the Jewish community in the same region, because the Christian churches which dominated the region viewed Sabbatarians not as Jews, but as Christian heretics. By 1635 when they were forced to convert to one of the four major Christian sects in the region by the government, they counted their members at 20,000 people. Driven underground the religion persisted in hiding for hundreds of years, pretending to be Christian but intermarrying either amongst themselves or occasionally with the local Jewish community. In the mid-1800s with the emancipation of the Jews, the Sabbatarian community came out of hiding (although they were still persecuted as heretics) and half of the community converted en-masse to Judaism. The community, now half Jewish, continued to pray together in the same Synagogue as before.

When WWII started and the Nuremberg laws came into force, the Hungarians who controlled the region, and the Germans who eventually took over, were not sure what to do with the Sabbatarians. At first they considered them Jews, but after protests (including by local Christian clergy) some were exempted from the racial laws that sent the Jews into ghettos and eventually to the death camps. Some who were given the opportunity to leave the ghetto remained there as they decided they would rather share the fate of the Jews (if that was what God willed). Very little of the community seems to have survived the war, although some descendants of the community still live in the area, and even in Israel.

The story is interesting from a genealogical point of view because of the history of the community. While the mass-conversion of half the community occurred within a time-period that is well documented, the previous two centuries of the community is not well-documented, and the interaction between the Sabbatarians and the Jewish community is not well known. If members of the community intermarried into the Jewish community (presumably converting to Judaism beforehand), then that is in many ways reverse intermarriage compared to the much-more-common-at-the-time marrying out of the community. It would be extremely rare at that time to find large numbers of a non-Jewish community marrying into the Jewish community.

How is this influx of the local population into the Jewish population reflected the DNA of the Jewish population? If intermarriage really started in the 16th century, the number of descendants could in fact make up a large minority segment of the Jewish population from that area. What are the predominant haplogroups of Sabbatarians? Do those haplogroups exist in any large percentage in the Ashkenazi Jewish community? Some haplogroups such as Q1b1, which is a minority among Ashkenazi Jews (5%), but which is almost all Jewish, have been theorized by some to be a remnant of the Khazarian mass-conversion (the only other large-scale conversion since biblical times that I can think of), but perhaps the Q1b1 haplogroup derives from the Sabbatarian community? or another mass-conversion which we don’t know about?

It would also be interesting to document the connections between the two halves of the Sabbatarian community after the mass conversion in the 19th century – presumably there was intermingling between the two halves after the conversion (they still prayed together after all).

From the article in Haaretz it seems those Jewish descendants of the Sabbatarians identified by the author may not be interested in researching this history. We may therefore never know the full story of the Sabbatarians, and what their influence on the make-up of the Jewish people today is (perhaps significant, perhaps inconsequential).

In any case, I recommend reading Shay Fogelman’s excellent article and learning about this little-known non-Jewish sect which followed many Jewish laws (although not circumcision among others).

Out of curiosity, how many of you had heard of these Sabbatarians (Szekler Sabbatarians) before this post? If so, where did you hear about them?

4 thoughts on “The Fate of the Sabbatarians

  1. Hi,Phillip
    I have a curious Sabbatarian story for you. I do medical relief work in the rain forest in Guyana, South America. Over the past 11 years, we have had some unusual experiences. I am an orthodox woman. I travel with a team of many religions, but I usually manage to shlep someone religious with me.

    1. In many villages, they called themselves Sabbatarians. The 7th Day Adventists do a lot of missionary work there, but this goes back even further
    2. One Friday, as the other religious man and myself we getting ready for Shabbat outside our tents, we heard a bell ringing [sort of like a cow bell]. I turned to D, and said that we could be in Yerushalayim with the 5 minute warning for Shabbat. As I set my candlesticks out on a wooden board, people started streaming out of the bush to the building near where our tents were. When I went to bench licht, I looked up and there were 17 women and girls-yes 17- watching while I lit.
    When D. went to make kiddush, all the men were standing outside with heads bowed and when he finished, they all said AMEN.
    3. The next day, while in clinic where both D and I only advised. there happened to be a medical emergency. As the clinic was extremely busy, I pulled out the emergency bag and took one of the docs and was ready to leave, when one of the village elders stopped me and said wait. She pulled over a boy and said “He is 6. He can carry your bag for you. It is outside camp where you are going.”
    4. In another village, we were serenaded as we left with a woman singing “haivenu shalom alechem” [when we went back and asked how she knew the song she told us her father had taught her.
    5. And it yet another, as I was preparing our foodon our burner, one of the escort team asked wht we weren’t eating the food that the team had cooked for us. I replied that we were “Jewish” and ate special food. He looked at me with a look of awe and said, ” I know, you are “CHEWS-You are the “CHEWSON” people”. We were then invited to give the ‘wprds of wisdom’ at their Friday night service near the river in their town. What an experience giving a ‘Lehavdil, Dvar Torah’ or words of wisdom in the rainforest.

    So, I will now read the article. Thank you for sending this on.
    I leave for Guyana again at the end of November [after my return from Israel]
    Chag Sameach.

  2. I am descended from Sabbatarians ( founders of the Seventh Day Baptists).. My DNA and genealogy show that I am the product of Scots and Welsh ancestry and my haplogroup is carried by 30% of the Jewish population on my mother’s side, and originates in the middle east; our family names are associated with Jewish families in Scotland, many of who were brought by Wiliam the Conqueror to create the Domesday Book. Genealogy and DNA also reveal I am a LIthuanian Ashkenazi Jew on my fathers’ side (the outsourcing to newer Jewish communities). Jewish people need to help and recognize these descendants of people who were highly victimized in traditionally Christian communities . The were also very successful traders who lived in large numbers in places like Aberdeen. Many of my ancestors were burned as witches, run out of town, jailed, tortured, constantly on the move, living in isolated areas where they could try to preserve some of their culture and religion in the “new Israel” after hiding in Scotland, Wales and Ireland (and even more secretly in England and France) for centuries. It is also important medically, as like other groups like Mennonites who were endogamous, there is much more at stake regarding the health of descendants of these founder populations. DNA will not allow you to say we are not Jews anymore, at least genetically. We are a lost tribe that is now being found. We served in very significant numbers in the Revolutionary War and were great patriots of America. I hope other descendants will come forward and accept who they are and that the entire Jewish community will too.

Leave a Reply